Psychology is the "study of mind", "the study of human behavior", "the study of human experience" and "the study of mental life". It involves the study of human and animal behavior and experience, examined from various viewpoints and by using a variety of techniques; most of which emphasize the importance of empirical evidence in support of explanatory theory.
An individual who is at least a post-graduate in the field of psychology can be called a psychologist. A psychologist deals with the issues of people through various techniques of counseling and psychotherapy by being empathetic, unconditional and non-judge mental.
Psychiatrists are always medically qualified and can prescribe drugs. The approaches they used may range from concentration on physical methods of treatment through to psychotherapeutic approaches in which they may work in very similar ways to some clinical psychologists.
A psychiatrist can prescribe drugs and is medically qualified and treats people with major psychological disorders. The psychologist is the person who treats people with minor mental disorders through counseling.
Any individual who is finding difficulty in coping with issues of personal, interpersonal relationship and environmental conditions can visit a psychologist. A psychologist uses counseling techniques for here and now issues while psychotherapy for deep seated problems.
Any individual who is suffering from organic or genetic problem, in the context of psychology, which is beyond the person's competency to cope and requires medical intervention, visits a psychiatrist. A psychiatrist enables the individual to be ready for psychotherapy with a psychologist, thus they both work together complimenting each other.
"Counseling" is a form of therapy derived from the non-directive counseling of Carl Rogers in which the client is supported while they gain insight into their problem and work on finding their own solution. "Counseling" is any procedure that helps the client to become happier, more creative and better adjusted to his environment. It is "a form of psychotherapy in which a psychologically trained counselor consciously attempts by verbal means in a personal interview to assist a client to modify behavior which is maladaptive, and in which the client is relatively aware of and motivated to co-operate in treatment process."
It helps people develop deeper self-knowledge, a change of attitude, a modification of self-perception and a modification of the perception of others. This also depends a lot on what kind of counseling is required by the individual. It can be personal counseling or career counseling varying from what is required by the individual.
A counseling session is a setting where the client and the counselor come together with a common objective of meeting with the clients problem in a more developmental and effective way. This process leads to action on part of the counselor, personal growth of the client usually occurs and resolution of the problem is an expectation.
Students can take various tests such as aptitude, interest, personality or other similar tests which can serve as a guideline as to which career to pursue. After the tests a session with the counselor or psychologist can help the student to understand his results of the test and discuss it.
The measurement-usually through questionnaires or inventories-of psychological characteristics: "mental testing". Psychometric tests include intelligence tests, personality tests, creativity tests, and a whole range of tests used for personnel selection and vocational guidance.
Psychometric tests include intelligence tests, personality tests, creativity tests, vocational guidance tests, tests for personnel selection, and many more.
It is the treatment of an individual by physical or psychological means. The goal of psychotherapy is to bring about a deep personality change. This requires many sessions and it may last for months and years. It is practiced by a psychiatrist.
The goal of psychotherapy is to bring about a deep personality change, in terms of a more effective reorganization of psychological processes. The aim of counseling is to achieve a better personal adjustment and growth in maturity, by stimulating the counselee to exploit her potential and use more of her resources.
Career counseling is an interpersonal process designed to assist individuals with career development problems. Career development is a process of choosing, entering, adjusting to and advancing in an occupation.
It is the assistance given to the students in choosing and preparing for a suitable vocation. It helps in assisting students acquire knowledge of the characteristics, functions of the occupations they are interested in. Vocational guidance also helps students in getting information about various post-educational and training facilities. To enable students to choose the right kind of jobs.
A term for the very broad class of psychological disorders which seem to arise from long-term characteristics of the person. E.g. psychopathology, paranoia.
Workplace counseling is either short-term or long-term, with a number of different roles. It can be used by the organization for its own purposes. These can be personal or professional problems, personal or professional growth, issues involving work, or not involving work. It can only be work-related and considers only problems that concern the work of the employee. Workplace counselor should clarify the purpose of providing counseling to employees.
Ability to write and speak effectively and to work with or supervise people from diverse backgrounds and levels of education and experience are important skills. HR managers must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and be able to handle the expected and the unusual. A flair for seeing the problem from all sides, good memory for names, lack of prejudice, detachment and understanding of people, ability to gain their respect and confidence, organizing ability and ability to perform under pressure are essential qualities required by a HR manager. Integrity, fair-mindedness, persuasive and congenial personality are also important qualities.
The challenge for HR mangers is to assist other members of the management team to make the most effective use of the people of the organization. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job.
Employers are turning to counseling as one way of helping to manage the mammoth changes taking place in organizations. Counseling is one way of supporting employees as they cope with the organizational change. Counseling can be seen as a way of improving mental health. Counseling can also be a source of organizational change. Having counseling available in the workplace means that problems can be dealt with fairly quickly and can be worked through in the very environment from which they emerge.
The work environment is mainly office environment. It can include working at a strategic level on a range of HR policies, processes and practices in relation to the business needs of the organization.
The tasks of the workplace counselors some key tasks expected from workplace counseling are :
In the process of transformation the Human Resource function is moving from the periphery to the centre stage. There is increased emphasis on "people" who are now perceived as the organization's most valuable resource. The focus is on greater manpower productivity.
Recruitment of the "right candidate" is very crucial for companies to survive in the competitive environment. An induction-orientation system which integrates the employee within the organization needs to focus on taking care of the anxieties and apprehensions of new employees as well as the work culture. Induction process needs to facilitate the differentiation between social and organizational roles, expectations and processes.
Training needs in alignment with changing market demands and competition will help prepare people to respond and upgrade themselves in knowledge, attitudes and skills. In company training programmes which contribute to increase understanding of various functions and which facilitate teamwork, inter-functional linkages and improved communication can go a long way in transforming individuals into confident and empowered employees with a growing sense of ownership, pride and commitment. Understanding of competitive strategic thinking along with managerial and leadership qualities enhances individual and organizational effectiveness.
Performance appraisal could be very transparent where the assessment parameters are not personal or subjective and preference based. Measurement of standard of performance could be clearly stated, documented and implemented. The current need of the hour is for star performers to excel and mentor others in order to make a difference in the performance of the organization as the whole.
An organization to design and introduce a promotion policy which ushers a system of meritocracy. Promotions based on performance or merit would further motivate the employees to put in their best efforts and increase level of performance to a great degree. High performers could be put on a fast-track career path which involves higher responsibilities and faster promotions.
The most powerful motivational force for future growth and success are compensation packages and rewards. Significant upward revision of remuneration packages is necessary giving way to antiquated and uncompetitive salary structures.
Every organization needs a designed structure tailor-made to suit its internal needs and external challenges. Proper positioning of each department and its function could be made in a manner that serves to sharpen the organization's competitive edge. Accountability of each department to the organization is important for better performance. Organization design and development is a process decision which an organization makes to actively give shape and direction to the organization.
The vision, mission, goals, objectives of the organization need be clearly defined, articulated and conveyed across the organization to each and every employee. The individual's goals and the organizational goals need to be aligned so that the employee experiences personal and professional fulfillment. The culture of the organization could be shaped congruent with the changing industry and changed expectations of the people.